Enterprise 2.0 Solution Offering
From MIKE2.0 Methodology
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In today's economic arena where competition is global and products and services are cheap due to the increasing commercial potency of emerging markets, price is no longer an area where organizations can hope to differentiate themselves. Instead, innovation is the principle means through which organizations can remain competitive. They must foster an environment that encourages innovation and produces a constant stream of innovative services and solutions. Many executives believe that they are the innovators for their companies, but in reality the capacity for 1000’s of employees to come up with innovative ideas far outweighs that of 10 or so top-level executives.
Most organizations have failed to tap into one of their richest assets - the tacit knowledge of their workforce. There is much value to be gained from the unrecorded insight and experiences inside knowledge worker's heads. Furthermore, organizations tend to collaborate poorly as hierarchical structures prevent cross-division content and social discovery. Division heads act as barriers to the fluid exchange of ideas.
What is Enterprise 2.0?
Enterprise 2.0 (first coined by Professor Andrew McAfee in Spring, 2006) is the state of the art in collaborative software modeled after Web 2.0 techniques and patterns. It is an emergent set of technologies that encourages innovation, facilitates the capture of tacit data, and creates a spirit of collaboration due to its participatory and social nature. Enterprise 2.0 flattens organizational hierarchies and lowers contribution barriers. This means that the output from the metaphorical troops in the trenches is directly visible to Generals on the hilltop. In this way organizations become more efficient due to increased sharing and discovery of knowledge, and can maintain competitive advantage by fostering innovation from within.
Enterprise 2.0 has organisations buzzing at these ideas, but also confused. Many are still trying to figure out what it means to them - is it turning their company into Facebook or MySpace? Yes, Wikipedia has been a great success, but imagine some of the issues if we tried to run our company like that!
What Drives Enterprise 2.0?
There are a number of factors driving the need for Enterprise 2.0 as well benefits that derive from it, creation a virtuous cycle for these capabilties and resulting businss benefits.
Internet Based Business Models
Enterprise 2.0 is the next generation enterprise, driven from user expectations of what they can do on the web. New business models result from this approach that include:
The need to Participate
Knowledge workers participate in an Enterprise 2.0 environment for selfish reasons. As Rod Boothby points out, it is Adam Smith’s notion of the “Invisible Hand” that drives this collaboration ecosystem. In describing the driving force behind the individual in free markets, Smith writes:
By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it. (An individual) intends only his own gain is led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention. Nor is it always the worse for society that it was no part of it. By pursuing his own interest (an individual) frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it. I have never known much good done by those who affected to trade for the (common) good. (Wealth of Nations)
A knowledge worker “…intends only his own gain”, he seeks recognition which can ultimately lead to promotion and increased economic remuneration. The “selfish” contributions made by knowledge workers make the enterprise (the "society") better off as a whole as the quality and quantity of knowledge assets increases.
The MIKE2.0 Approach to Enterprise 2.0
This Solution Offering provides an approach for implementing Enterprise 2.0 that is particularly focused around the impacts of Enterprise 2.0 and its relation to Information Development. 3 Principles drive the approach and help formulate the initial architecture and governance model: collaboration, agility and information-centricity.
It shows how to apply Web 2.0 techniques within an organisation to get the benefits of collaborative content development, harness the power of informal networks and to quickly adjust to shifting strategies. The proposed approach balances some of the risks related to information security, stability and staff workload.
This approach also proposes that those organisations that are truly successful in taking advantage of Enterprise 2.0 will use new techniques and technologies and prioritise on developing two areas: human capital development and Information Development. Through this approach, organisations can truly become more agile and more innovative.
Why a method for Enterprise 2.0
Some methods for solution delivery move as a counter to the goals on Enterprise 2.0. But just because Enterprise 2.0 is based on principles such as agile delivery, perpetual beta and may start out as a "skunkworks", doesn't mean in can't be done in the context of a method - the method just needs to allow for these models. Some key reasons why you should have a model for Enterprise 2.0 include:
Some method aspects of MIKE2.0 would be different in a skunkworks-style implementation. Most of the activity process is the same, its simply accelerated.
Solution Offering Purpose
This is a Core Solution Offering. Core Solution Offerings bring together all assets in MIKE2.0 relevant to solving a specific business and technology problem. Many of these assets may already exist and as the suite is built out over time, assets can be progressively added to an Offering.
A Core Solution Offering contains all the elements required to define and deliver a go-to-market offering. It can use a combination of open, shared and private assets.
Solution Offering Relationship OverviewInformation Development. This comprehensive solution brings together many aspects of the overall MIKE2.0 Methodology and also makes recommendations on the use of external assets.
MIKE2.0 Solutions provide a detailed and holistic way of addressing specific problems. MIKE2.0 Solutions can be mapped directly to the Phase and Activities of the MIKE2.0 Overall Implementation Guide, providing additional content to help understand the overall approach.
The MIKE2.0 Overall Implementation Guide explains the relationships between the Phases, Activities and Tasks of the overall methodology as well as how the Supporting Assets tie to the overall Methodology and MIKE2.0 Solutions.
Users of the MIKE2.0 Methodology should always start with the Overall Implementation Guide and the MIKE2.0 Usage Model as a starting point for projects.
Solution Offering Definition
This Solution Offering provides a strategy and set of implementation techniques for implementing Enterprise 2.0 concepts and technologies in any organisation. As a Composite Solution Offering, it brings together content from other Core Solution Offerings in the MIKE2.0 Methodology into a holistic offering. These offerings include:
While referencing relevant activities and advanced techniques, this offering:
The solution is defined by referencing key Core Solution Offering and then focusing on specific techniques that relate to Enterprise 2.0. Through this approach, organisations can implement an Enterprise 2.0 programme and start to see the benefits of Web 2.0 techniques and technologies internally.
Relationship to Solution Capabilities
The MIKE2.0 Enterprise 2.0 Solution Offering is primarily focused on Information Development and makes use of collaborative technologies from the SAFE Architecture. It uses a number of activities from the Overall Implementation Guide to see a project through from strategy to implementation.
Relationship to Enterprise Views
This solution is primarily about enabling Information Development in the context of a collaborative approach. Besides the techniques and technologies, it also provides a fundamental shift on organisational structure, how people inter-relate with one another and process.
Mapping to the Information Governance Framework
The Information Governance Solution Offering is required across all Solution Offerings. For this offering it is particularly important that the governance models focus on security for accessing information as this can be an area of significant complexity. Information sharing standards are also important in the context of how information flows across departmental and organisational boundaries.
One of the keys to a successful Enterprise 2.0 implementation is that governance can be in place, without it feeling restrictive. Enterprise 2.0 results in a number of behaviors that are not encouraged in the context of more traditional models; limiting some of these behaviors with governance controls that are unnecessarily restrictive will result in a diminished solution.
Mapping to the SAFE Architecture Framework
For the collaboration and knowledge management programme provided through Enterprise 2.0, a number of components may be required from the SAFE Architecture. All components within Enterprise Content Management are particularly relevant to this offering. In addition, a Search capability is a priority area.
Mapping to the Overall Implementation Guide
Shown below are the typical activities for an organisation that wants to take a “top down” approach to Enterprise 2.0, starting with an overall strategy.
There is nothing wrong with starting an Enterprise 2.0 initiative at departmental level and it many cases starting as a “skunkworks” can be the most effective approach. Scaling horizontally is usually easily done, especially if there is a reliance on loose coupling, open and common standards and some foresight on an initial set of required capabilities. Therefore, going through the initial set of activities very quickly (as is done the Agile Information Development Solution Offering) is valuable even for a focused engagement. The Usage Model for Composite Core Solution Offerings provides a list of all the required activities for this offering. Shown below are the most important activities for a typical programme and how they relate to the overall approach.
Phase 1 - Business Assessment and Strategy Definition Blueprint
For a comprehensive, top-down programme a number of the activities are required from this phase to define the overall Business Strategy. Some programmes can be quite tactical but generally should cover these tasks at a very high level. Some strategy activities may not be needed if they were already done as part of part of an enteprise programme, as described in the Enterprise Content Management Strategy Solution Offering.
Enterprise Information Management Awareness
The Enterprise Information Management Awareness activity is important to introduce concepts related to Enterprise 2.0. As an emerging area, many users will not even know what the concept is. There will also be concerns related to areas such as security and loss of control. Therefore, users typically benefit from education related to community-based content development, security, search capabilities and web-based collaboration. A comparative analysis between Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0 should be introduced at this stage.
Overall Business Strategy for Information Development
In the Overall Business Strategy for Information Development activity, the strategic business initiatives are defined in the context of information requirements. For Enterprise 2.0 engagements, this activity defines the scope of information to be shared and collaboratively developed, as well as the ultimate knowledge goals for the organisation. It will be helpful at this time to draw the boundaries and relationships for information that will be developed through more formal networks vs. those that are more informal.
Future State Vision for Information Management
The Future State Vision for Information Management is an important activity for defining the strategic conceptual architecture for Enterprise 2.0. As this typically involves a number of different conceptual components, a systematic approach to architecture is important. High Solution Architecture Options should also be defined at this stage. This activity also defines the future-state business processes for information management. Implementation of Enterprise 2.0 techniques and technologies will introduce some fundamental changes to business process although it should be noted that this flexibility does not result in the complete removal of process. The controls put in place for collaborative content development are different than what may be seen in some Web 2.0 environments.
Phase 2 - Technology Assessment and Selection Blueprint
For a comprehensive, top-down programme, a number of the activities are required from this phase to define the overall Technology Strategy. Some programmes can be quite tactical but generally should cover these tasks at a very high level. Some strategy activities may not be needed if they were already done as part of part of an enteprise programme, as described in the Enterprise Content Management Strategy Solution Offering.
Strategic Requirements for Technology Backplane Development
In the MIKE2.0 Methodology, Enterprise 2.0 technologies are seen to reside along the Technology Backplane of Information Development and Infrastructure Development. This activity is used to define the capabilities that are needed for the strategic implementation of these programme.
For Enterprise 2.0, requirements can be developed quickly if there is an emphasis on the use of open and common standards. Through this approach, strategic requirements do not need to be defined for a multi-year programme as new technologies can be more easily “plugged in” during future release cycles, reducing the amount of time required during the strategy.
Strategic Non-Functional Requirements
Strategic Non-Functional Requirements for Enterprise 2.0 are defined at a overarching level in this activity. For Enterprise 2.0 to be effective, there must a significant focus on usability, performance and ability to scale to meet future business volume growth requirements. Users will expect the solution to be easy to use from their experience with sites on the public internet and a quick capturing of requirements at this time will help shape the design in later stages. Note that these requirements should be done quickly – getting a working system in front of users and re-working through prototyping is a much more effective method for meeting usability requirements.
Current-State Logical Architecture
The Current-State Logical Architecture assesses the current capabilities in the environment for Collaboration and Knowledge Exchange. For example, there may be existing content in a number of knowledge repositories that will be accessed through new Search technology; existing Search technology may be used to access a new Social Bookmarking system.
Future-State Logical Architecture and Gap Analysis
The Future-State Logical Architecture and Gap Analysis builds on the conceptual architecture that is already defined and takes it to the level of detail required to make strategic technology decisions. A gap analysis can then be conducted be conducted between the current-state and future-state to determine which technologies can be re-used.
Future-State Physical Architecture and Vendor Selection
Through defining the Future-State Physical Architecture and Vendor Selection, logical capabilities are mapped to specific product options. This mapping is then used to make technology decisions, oftentimes through an RFP-based selection process.
In the case of Enterprise 2.0, there are many strong open source technology options available. Options for using open source include:
Use of open source is a key accelerator for the agile approach to Information Development.
Phase 3 - Information Management Roadmap and Foundation Activities
Within Phase 3, the scope of the solution for a specific increment is defined and the overall content model begins to take shape.
Detailed Business Requirements
When developing the Detailed Business Requirements for collaboration and knowledge development, the focus is on the scope of information to be shared and defining the more detailed functional requirements for collaboration. As users will be driving the content creation, these activity is generally more focused on scope as opposed to capability.
The Taxonomy Design activity defines the structures for relating content to one another. For collaboration and knowledge environment, the development of this taxonomy is one of the critical aspects of the solution. Taxonomy design may range from a formally designed structure to one that grows more organically.
Prototype the Solution Architecture
The activity to Prototype the Solution Architecture helps to rapidly develop the solution. The prototype progressively builds out the overall functionality of the solution. If the prototype is done effectively some of the formalisation of the design activities in Phase 4 may be unnecessary.
Phase 4 - Design Increment
For Enterprise 2.0 a number of design activities are required which are described below.
Information Security Design
Information Security Design defines which information can be seen by users within the collaborative environment. The most important aspects of security design relate to how information is accessed and who can edit content. Group-based access control is typically used to implement security rules. Information Security is particular important for those initiatives that interact with outside communities.
Infrastructure Management Process Design
The Infrastructure Management Process Design applies to the back-end environment that stores content. It also applies to the management processes and technology responsible for holding backup content from the collaboration environment and making it quickly available in the case of a recovery scenario.
Data Integration Logical Design
Data Integration Logical Design is particularly relevant to Enterprise 2.0 in relation to Search. Within this activity, logical adapter interfaces are defined that may go through an application interface or the back-end of a system.
Data Integration Physical Design
Data Integration Physical Design is particularly relevant to Enterprise 2.0 in relation to Search. Physical design of interfaces incorporate the technical details of how the interface will be developed as well as considerations such as performance and reliability.
Collaborative Framework Design
Collaborative Framework Design is one of the most important activities for this Solution Offering and all tasks are needed. It is the activity that defines how users will interact with one another, how internal and external assets will be brought together in the collaborative environment and how users may specifically classify content.
User Interface Design
The User Interface Design activity defines the front-end interface in which a user will interact with the collaborative system. For successful Enterprise 2.0 engagement, the simplicity of this interface design is essential.
Phase 5 - Develop, Test & Deploy Increment
Through development, testing and deployment activities the solution the prototyped is hardened and implemented into production.
Technology Backplane Development
The Technology Backplane Development activity covers the development of integration and information management components for Enterprise 2.0. This includes development of interfaces, web components and security technologies.
Depending on the complexity of the solution, different testing activities will be required although testing is generally not complex. Functional Testing and some level of System Integration Testing will be required at a minimum; SVT is are also important. Perhaps most important is UAT; it should be ensured that are users are actively engaged throughout the development and testing process.
Integration to the outside world may also require some specialized testing focused on security, performance and usability. Testing for Enterprise 2.0 technologies is much quicker than other types of engagements.
Continuous Improvement – Infrastructure
As Enterprise 2.0 engagement focus on agility, Continuous Improvement Activities are particularly important. Continuous Improvement of Infrastructure is used to improve efficiency of interfaces, search results and system performance.
How this method must be improved
While the Overall Implementation Guide provides many of the key activites for Enterprise 2.0 its possible that the themes of what is needed don't come out clearly enough. The basic technology is straightforward - many of the challenges are in getting collaboration to happen in a purposeful manner. In addition, the idea of open and transparent collaboration is easy to state, but it has many significant business impacts. How this can applied in different industries differs and should be applied within the method.
Mapping to Supporting Assets
Logical Architecture, Design and Development Best Practices
The following Supporting Assets are core to this solution offering:
Product-Specific Implementation Techniques
Product Selection Criteria
Relationships to other Solution Offerings
This Solution Offering relates closely to the following Offerings:
Extending the Open Methodology through Solution Offerings
Listed below are proposed extensions to the Overall Implementation Guide to meet the requirements for this offering:
Potential Activity Changes
Organisational QuickScan for Information Development
The existing QuickScan assessments should be extended to cover collaboration and knowledge sharing
Wiki asset search