Information Governance Solution Offering
From MIKE2.0 Methodology
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There are varying definitions of the term "Information Governance" (IG). To be sure, there is consensus that IG includes Data Quality Management (DQM). However, it is difficult to arrive at a consensus for three primary reasons:
The MIKE2.0 Methodology embraces this broader definition of DG, ultimately refering to this overall approach as Information Development. We believe that organizations have traditionally not focused sufficiently on this area. As a result, they face many of the problems that they do today. MIKE2.0 allows for the implementation of a comprehensive DG programme designed to address the business problems that, at their core, are data management problems.
Why is a Comprehensive Approach Required for Data Quality Improvement?
A comprehensive DG programme must be defined to meet these challenges.
Why is a New Competency Model Required?
Many organisations have struggled to meet these challenges for one fundamental reason: they fail to focus on the enterprise-wide nature of data management problems. They incorrectly see information as a technology or IT issue, rather than as a fundamental and core business activity. In many ways Information is the new accounting. Solutions required to address complex infrastructure and information issues can't be tackled on a department-by-department basis.
While necessary, defining an enterprise-wide programme, on the other hand, is also very difficult. Building momentum for these initiatives takes a long period of time. Further, it can easily lead to approaches out-of-sync with business needs. Attempts to enforce architectural governance, for example, can quite easily become ineffectual or a "toothless watchdog" providing value.
Organisations require an approach that can address all of the inherent challenges of
Fundamentally, this approach should be both
Moving from Data Governance to Information Governance
Because IG is a relatively new field, practitioners have focused on what they know. Typically, this focus has been on structured data. Early adopters have admittedly been wary of the more ambiguous aspects of governance. These include:
MIKE2.0 has initially focused on an improved approach to DG. The ultimate objective is to extend this solution more broadly to encompass other forms of content. Through this collaborative method, Contributors are encouraged to help develop this solution in an emerging area.
The target scope for this offering is defined in the Solution Offering Definition section
Solution Offering Purpose
This is a Core Solution Offering (CSO) and it brings together all assets in MIKE2.0 that pertain to solving a specific business and technology problem. Many of these assets may already exist. What's more, as the suite is built out over time, assets can be progressively added to an Offering.
A CSO contains all the elements required to define and deliver a go-to-market offering. It can use a combination of open, shared, and private assets.
The Information Governance Offering is also a Foundational Solution. Foundational Solutions are "background" solutions that support the Core Solution Offerings of the MIKE2.0 Methodology. They are the lowest assets within MIKE2.0 that of a comprehensive nature. They may tie together multiple Supporting Assets. Finally, they are referenced in the Overall Implementation Guide and via other Solution Offerings.
Solution Offering Relationship Overview
MIKE2.0 Solutions provide a detailed and holistic way of addressing specific problems. Theycan be mapped directly to the Phases and Activities of the MIKE2.0 Overall Implementation Guide. To this end, they provide additional content to help users understand the overall approach.
The MIKE2.0 Overall Implementation Guide explains:
Users of the MIKE2.0 Methodology should always start with the Overall Implementation Guide. The MIKE2.0 Usage Model also provides a good starting point for projects.
Solution Offering Definition
Listed below are the most important factors to a successful Information Governance (IG) programme. This definition provides the target scope for this solution offering, which also includes unstructured content.
These capabilities are implemented across the five implementation phases.
Relationship to Solution Capabilities
This Solution Offering maps into the Solution Capabilities of MIKE2.0 as described below.
Relationship to Enterprise Views
The MIKE2.0 Solution for Information Governance covers all areas of Information Development, across people, process, organisation, technology and strategy. It is a key enabler to delivering an Information Management competency and moving to model of a sophisticated Information Governance Organisation.
Mapping to the Information Governance Framework
This Solution Offering provides the Information Governance Framework for MIKE2.0 and is a Foundational Solution for MIKE2.0 as well as being a go-to-market offering. Foundational Solutions are used to support all Solution Offerings across the MIKE2.0 Methodology.
Mapping to the SAFE Architecture Framework
Developing a common architectural framework is an important part of a holistic approach to Information Governance. The SAFE Architecture provides a complementary Foundational Solution to the Information Governance Framework. Key aspects of the architecture in relation to this offering include:
Through this approach a consistent architecture can be defined and implemented over time that complements the people, process, and organisational aspects of Information Governance.
Mapping to the Overall Implementation Guide
There are a number of aspects that make up the MIKE2.0 approach to improving Information Governance and the operating model for how it is delivered. It crosses the 5 phases of the overall approach. The most critical activities and how they relate to improving Information Governance are described briefly below:
Business Assessment and Strategy Definition (Phase 1)
Improving Information Governance as part of MIKE2.0 is initiated from the onset of the programme, during the definition of the Business Blueprint. Phase 1 Activities for improving Information Governance include assessment of the current-state environment and establishing the initial Data Governance team.
Business Strategy for Overall Information Development
For Information Governance the Overall Business Strategy for Information Development is required but this is normally done within the context of an Information Management Strategy engagement. If it has not been done at a strategic level it should be done as part of this programme.
The Organisational QuickScan for Information Development is about trying to quickly understand the organisation’s current environment for Information Governance and to begin to establish the vision for where it would like to go throughout the programme. This means that some of the key tasks within this Activity involve capturing the current-state set of practices around Information Governance, which are often poorly documented. As MIKE2.0 uses a broad definition of Information Governance, this assessment process involves People, Process, Organisation and Technology. QuickScan assessments are a core part of this activity as they not only provide a rich starter set of questions but also provide maturity guidelines for organisations. The gap between the current-state assessment and the envisioned future-state gives an early indicator of the scope of the overall Information Governance programme.
Data Governance Sponsorship and Scope
In order to conduct a successful Data Governance programme, it is important to have sponsorship at senior levels. Data Governance Sponsorship and Scope is focused on defining what this initial scope will be for improved Data Governance, based on the high-level information requirements and the results of the organisational assessment. This leadership team will play an ongoing role on the project.
Initial Data Governance Organisation
The Initial Data Governance Organisation is focused on establishing the larger Data Governance Organisation. Roles and Responsibilities are established and the overall Organisational structure is formalised. Communications models for Data Governance are also established, which become a critical aspect of issue resolution and prevention further down in the implementation process. The Data Governance Organisation that is established at this point will become more sophisticated over time. The continuous implementation phases of MIKE2.0 (phases 3,4,5) revisit organisational structure for each increment and there are specific improvement activities around moving to an Information Development Organisational model in Phase 5.
The Information Management Governance organisation should review all roles associated with Information Management along with the required skills for each role and the acitivities performed by these roles. The Information Management Roles, Skills and Activities shows typical roles associated with a generic Information Management setup. While the list of roles is extensive, it is not necessarily an exhaustive list. Every organisation will have special requirements. In addition, a role does not equate to a unique physical person. One person can handle multiple roles, especially within smaller organisations. More on that later. Also, a specific role can be performed by many people across the organisation. Skills and Activities associated with each role are also flexible and each organisation can use this table as a guideline and then customize it to their organisation.
Future State Vision for Information Management
Defining the overall Information Management Architecture and Standards are an important part of Information Governance. If this is not done within another programme, it should be done as part of an Information Governance programme by defining the Future State Vision for Information Management. The strategic logical and physical architectures may also be reviewed in later activities.
Return on Investment of Information Assets
The Return on Investment of Information Assets activity is under development. It will be an important activity in the Information Governance Solution Offering but measuring information value and providing and overall business case for Information Management.
The Programme Review activity is important for assessing that the Information Management programme is aligning with overall strategy and the methodological approach. It should be conducted on a periodic basis.
Technology Assessment and Selection Blueprint (Phase 2)
From a Data Governance perspective, two of the key Activities involve the development of policies and standards that will be used as part of the implementation phases of the project. As part of the Continuous Improvement approach introduced in Phase 5, audits will be conducted to enforce the use of standards and policies and communication will be used as the basis of improved culture. It is also at this point that we begin capturing information into a structured metadata repository. Metadata is captured when information assets are designed and built and if key for supporting a common understanding of the information assets. Data usage and dependencies are also identified in the metadata, to support change impact assessments and to fully reveal the business usage of information assets.
Data Governance Policies are derived from the policies and guidelines developed in Phase 1. These high-level policies impact the definition of Data Standards, in particular data security, normalisation and auditing practices.
Data Standards are an important part of Data Governance as standards take complexity out of the implementation process though common language, term definitions and usage guidelines. The standards should be established before the implementation teams begin any detailed work. This will make sure that the team is using a common set of techniques and convention and working within the overall policy framework for Data Governance. As part of an overall Data Governance programme, standards are typically developed for:
Data Standards should be straightforward and follow a common set of best practices. Oftentimes, Data Standards will already exist that can be leveraged and extended.
Metadata Driven Architecture
The strategy, design and implementation of a Metadata Driven Architecture is a key part of the approach to improving Data Governance. Metadata management is developed across multiple
It is important to get metadata management practices in place from the onset. As Phase 2 involves strategic technology requirements and product selection, the implementation team may lack the tools with which they plan to strategically manage metadata and ideally move to a metadata-driven environment. Therefore, projects will often need to take a tactical approach in the early stages. Regardless of whether a product or platform has been selected yet, MIKE2.0 recommends some form of repository and base meta-model be in place from the onset. MIKE2.0 provides a starter set model for metadata management that encapsulated much of the core metadata that we want to capture. During the Blueprint phase, this model can be used to collect information that historically would have gone into documents or spreadsheets.
Roadmap and Foundation Activities (Phase 3)
The Foundation Activities of MIKE2.0 are arguably the most important aspects of the overall methodology for improving Data Governance. The focus in implementing the Foundation Activities is around those Key Data Elements that are deemed the most crucial to the business.
Business Scope for Improved Data Governance
Definition of the Key Data Elements as part of the Business Scope for Improved Data Governance is a key part of the MIKE2.0 approach to Data Governance. KDEs help focus the work to be done to the most critical data that impacts business users. Data valuation then assigns value to KDEs that are used to prioritize the scope of the Data Governance program. The Data Governance approach focuses primarily on these KDEs for each increment.
Enterprise Information Architecture
Most organisations do not have a well-defined Enterprise Information Architecture. MIKE2.0 takes the approach of building out the Enterprise Information Architecture over time for each new increment that is implemented as part of the overall programme. The scope for building the Enterprise Information Architecture is defined by the in-scope Key Data Elements (KDEs). The Enterprise Information Architecture includes the model to support these KDEs, what systems they resides in, the mastering rules for this data and how often it is to be mastered.
Root Cause Analysis of Data Governance Issues
Preventing Data Governance issues involves analyzing those process activities or application automation that prevents Data Governance issues from occurring in the first place. Root Cause Analysis of Data Governance Issues is concerned with addressing root cause issues as opposed to addressing the symptoms. In many cases, the root causes are organisational and process-related rather than technical in nature. Some of the typical root causes include lack of senior management commitment, lack of appropriate organisational structure to support governance, non-compliance of governance processes even if the processes exist etc.
Data Governance Metrics
Data Governance Metrics include the data quality metrics to be measured for the KDEs. Baseline (current state) metric levels should be assessed and suitable target levels for improvement defined. Each KDE is measured against the defined metric category through the appropriate measurement technique.
In addition to KDE quality metrics, consideration should be given to:
Data Profiling is used to quantitatively identify data quality issues. This is a key aspect to improving Data Governance as it provides clear results on actual data. MIKE2.0 recommends Data Profiling be conducted frequently as an approach to improve overall Data Governance.
Data Re-Engineering helps improve Data Governance by dealing with historical Data Quality issues that are typically identified in Data Profiling. MIKE2.0 recommends that Data Re-Engineering follows a serial process of standardisation, correction, matching and enrichment but that this process be conducted iteratively, following the "80/20 rule". This provides a model for improving Data Governance in the most cost-effective and expedient fashion.
Develop, Test, Deploy and Improve Activities (Phase 5)
The latter Activities of Phase 5 are focused on Continuous Improvement of the overall Data Governance processes, technology environment and operating model.
Continuous Improvement – Compliance Auditing
Continuous Improvement - Compliance Auditing are conducted by an external group as opposed to the internal Data Governance team. Audits don’t involve the technical aspects of data analysis (i.e. data profiling), but instead involves inspection of results and looking at overall processes for Data Governance.
Continuous Improvement – Standards, Policies and Processes
Continuous Improvement - Standards, Policies and Processes revisits the overall set of standards, metrics, policies and processes for Data Governance. Recommended changes feed into the next increment of work as part of the continuous implementation approach of the MIKE2.0 Methodology.
Continuous Improvement – Data Quality
Continuous Improvement - Data Quality involves identification of root causes and ongoing Data Quality monitoring. This allows a far more proactive approach to Data Governance, whereby organization can either address issues quickly or stop them from occurring altogether.
Continuous Improvement – Infrastructure
Continuous Improvement - Infrastructure environment involves closely monitoring the current-environments and instituting tactical changes that are inline with the strategic vision of improved Data Governance.
Continuous Improvement – Information Development Organisation
MIKE2.0 recommends an Information Development Organisation as the most mature organisational model for improving Data Governance in the most efficient and effective fashion. Using the Information Maturity Model first introduced in Organisational QuickScan Activity, the Continuous Improvement - Information Development Organisation approach progressively moves the organisation to the optimal approach for Data Governance.
Mapping to Supporting Assets
Improving Information Governance should go across people, process, organisation and technology. In addition to following the relevant Activities from the Overall Implementation Guide, the following artifacts from MIKE2.0 can be used to assist in this effort:
Sample Customer Data Management Policies that relate to customer privacy, data encryption and information sharing. Information Security Deliverable Template provides an output template that can be used to capture key information security standards In addition, reference other Core Solution Offerings for best design standards and implementation processes.
Relationships to other Solution Offerings
Extending the Open Methodology through Solution Offerings
Listed below are proposed extensions to the Overall Implementation Guide to meet the requirements for this Solution Offering:
Potential Activity Changes
The scope of QuickScan needs to be expanded to more broadly cover Information Management. IM QuickScan, for example, is primarily focused around Enterprise Data Management and, in particular, on Data Quality and Data Governance.
Data Governance Sponsorship and Scope
This activity will be expanded to also give representation to unstructured content for complete coverage for the Information Governance offering.
Initial Data Governance Organisation
This activity will be expanded to also give representation to unstructured content for complete coverage for the Information Governance offering. For unstructured data assessment, see ECM Maturity Model (ecm3).
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